You may barely make it to office on time, but that doesn’t mean you skip breakfast. That means you wake up earlier! A healthy breakfast starts your day on the right note. It gives your metabolism the kick-start it needs so that, later in the day, you don’t overeat. Choose healthy breakfast options like oatmeal, eggs with whole-wheat toast or a breakfast smoothie made with fresh fruits and vegetables.

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Many people, and even many doctors, have not heard of antibody tests, which can aid in the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. The blood tests measure your body’s specific antibodies related to autoimmune activity that attacks insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, says Lori Laffel, MD, chief of the section on Pediatric, Adolescent, and Young Adult Diabetes at Joslin Diabetes Center and professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School.

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It’s what we all did naturally, even until thirty to forty years ago. Your mom knew what she was taking about when she asked you to stay away from that evening snack. She said it so that you didn’t spoil your appetite for dinner! Sadly, with increased affluence and easy availability of processed foods, the fad of eating six small meals a day to stave off cravings has become popular. Eating frequent meals keeps your blood sugar and insulin levels consistently high. If you keep giving your body food, it has no incentive to burn fat. Stick to three meals a day at the most, with a clear 10-12 hour fasting period between dinner and breakfast. Intermittent fasting improves insulin sensitivity and helps you reverse your prediabetes really quickly.

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Pasta with meatballs: Toss 1 c cooked whole grain pasta in garlic and 1 Tbsp olive oil and garlic. Top with 3-oz lean meat balls (made with turkey, chicken or soy) and 1 tsp grated Parmesan cheese. Serve with cucumber salad (toss 1 c mixed greens, 1 c cucumber slices, 10 halved cherry tomatoes, ¼ c chopped red onions and 2 Tbsp reduced-fat Italian dressing).
Pramlintide is only appropriate for certain people with diabetes who use insulin and are having problems maintaining their blood sugar levels. Because of the potential for severe hypoglycemia with the use of pramlintide is with insulin, adjustments to insulin dosage and more frequent glucose monitoring may be necessary. Insulin and pramlintide should not be mixed in the same syringe.

Ignore the fads. Give your body a break between the three main meals of the day. Let it get sensitive to insulin again. Let your body burn fat for energy between meals. No doubt, it takes a little getting used to. But, if you make sure that your diet has the good fats your body needs, it will respond by learning to use fats, instead of craving sugar.


This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

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Type 2 diabetes in children is a growing problem. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), around 193,000 Americans under age 20 have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. One study found that the incidence of type 2 diabetes in youth has increased to about 5,000 new cases per year. Another study showed a significant increase, particularly in minority races and ethnic groups.
High blood sugar and high blood pressure can do a number on the tiny blood vessels in your eyes, but the damage can be prevented if your doctor spots it early. The best way to do that? A yearly dilated eye exam. With the help of eyedrops that enlarge your pupils for a short time, your eye doctor will examine the inside of your eyes for signs of leaky blood vessels. It's a painless test, but you won't be able to see clearly for a few hours afterward.
Aside from managing your diabetes, a diabetes diet offers other benefits, too. Because a diabetes diet recommends generous amounts of fruits, vegetables and fiber, following it is likely to reduce your risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. And consuming low-fat dairy products can reduce your risk of low bone mass in the future.

How it works: Helps insulin work better in muscle and fat. It lowers the amount of sugar the liver releases and makes fat cells more sensitive to insulin’s effects. It may take a few weeks for this kind of drug to lower blood sugar. Your doctor should talk with you about heart risks with this type of drug, which he may call “thiazolidinediones.” Side effects for thiazolidinediones are rare but may include:
High blood sugar (hyperglycemia). Your blood sugar level can rise for many reasons, including eating too much, being sick or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication. Check your blood sugar level as directed by your doctor, and watch for signs and symptoms of high blood sugar — frequent urination, increased thirst, dry mouth, blurred vision, fatigue and nausea. If you have hyperglycemia, you'll need to adjust your meal plan, medications or both.

Portion control comes naturally when you choose the right grains, proteins and fats. You don’t have to starve yourself to lose weight if you’re eating the right kind of food. However, eating in moderation never hurt anyone, even if they have to make a conscious effort at it in the beginning. Eat the right foods to regulate satiety, but eat slowly and chew your food well. That way, your brain has a chance to let you know when you’re full. If you gobble your food in no time, you mess up your digestion and eat a lot more than you need to.
If type 1 diabetes is suspected, your urine will be tested to look for the presence of a byproduct produced when muscle and fat tissue are used for energy because the body doesn't have enough insulin to use the available glucose (ketones). Your doctor will also likely run a test to see if you have the destructive immune system cells associated with type 1 diabetes called autoantibodies.
Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes, but today more children are being diagnosed with the disorder, probably due to the rise in childhood obesity. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating well and exercising can help manage the disease. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you may also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.

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Nuts make an excellent snack, but only if you feel hungry in between meals. They taste great even when added to oatmeal, salads and curries. An American Society for Nutrition study from 2008 revealed that nuts have the potential to improve blood lipid profile to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabete. Choose from walnuts, pine nuts, almonds, hazelnut, peanuts and pistachio. Steer clear of packaged nuts with added fats and sugars. The best kinds of nuts are the organic and least processed kinds.
Schedule a yearly physical and regular eye exams. Your regular diabetes checkups aren't meant to replace yearly physicals or routine eye exams. During the physical, your doctor will look for any diabetes-related complications and screen for other medical problems. Your eye care specialist will check for signs of retinal damage, cataracts and glaucoma.
Nuts make an excellent snack, but only if you feel hungry in between meals. They taste great even when added to oatmeal, salads and curries. An American Society for Nutrition study from 2008 revealed that nuts have the potential to improve blood lipid profile to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabete. Choose from walnuts, pine nuts, almonds, hazelnut, peanuts and pistachio. Steer clear of packaged nuts with added fats and sugars. The best kinds of nuts are the organic and least processed kinds.

Monitoring your blood sugar. Depending on your treatment plan, you may check and record your blood sugar as many as four times a day or more often if you're taking insulin. Careful monitoring is the only way to make sure that your blood sugar level remains within your target range. People with type 2 diabetes who aren't taking insulin generally check their blood sugar much less frequently.
How it works: Helps insulin work better in muscle and fat. It lowers the amount of sugar the liver releases and makes fat cells more sensitive to insulin’s effects. It may take a few weeks for these drugs to lower blood sugar. Your doctor should talk with you about heart risks with this type of drug, which he may call “thiazolidinediones.” Side effects from this type of drug are rare but may include:

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Your doctor will check them for redness, cracks, sores, or open wounds. He'll look for weird problems (like overlapping toes); and he'll do a monofilament test. You’ll close your eyes and he'll simply press a piece of nylon to various parts of your foot. If you can’t feel it, you might have nerve damage. He may also tap on your Achilles tendon to see if the nerves on the back of your ankle are in good condition. A clue that they are? Your foot will point downward automatically.

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For Candace Clark, bariatric surgery meant the difference between struggling with weight issues, including medical problems triggered by obesity, and enjoying renewed health and energy. "I felt like I was slowly dying," says Candace Clark, a 54-year-old Barron, Wisconsin, resident who had dealt with weight issues for years. "I was tired of feeling the way [...]
The Mediterranean style eating pattern focuses on mostly plant-based foods like vegetables, fruit, whole grains, cereals, nuts, seeds, and beans, seasonally fresh, and locally grown foods. Olive oil is the main source of fat.  This eating pattern also includes a small amount of dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt, fish, and poultry. Red meat is limited. Wine can be consumed in small amounts (1-2 glasses of wine per day) with meals. 
The carbohydrates are balanced throughout the day with each meal containing 2-3 carb servings (30-45 grams of carbohydrates) and each snack containing around 1 carb serving (15 grams of carbohydrates). The calorie and carbohydrate totals are listed next to each meal and snack so you can swap foods with similar nutrition in and out as you like. Eating with diabetes doesn't need to be difficult—choose a variety of nutritious foods, as we do in this diet meal plan, and add in daily exercise for a healthy and sustainable approach to managing diabetes. 

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